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Splint Room
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IndianHandsOnTherapy
by Nandgaonkar's Therapy Services

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 Mechanical principles

Reduce pressure by increasing the area of force application.

Control parallel force system by increasing the mechanical advantage.

Use optimum rotational force when mobilizing a joint by dynamic traction.

Consider the torque effect on a joint.

Consider the relative degree of passive mobility of successive joints within the longitudinal segmental kinetic chain.

Consider the effects of reciprocal parallel forces when designing splints and placing straps.

Increase material strength by providing contour.

Eliminate friction.

Avoid high shear stress.

Principles of using dynamic assist for mobilization

Identify optimum force parameters.

Identify optimum torque parameters.

Correlate physical properties of the dynamic assist with patient requirements.

Correlate physical properties of the dynamic assist with the design of the splint.

Consider the principles of mechanics and fit.

Control and maintain force magnitude.

 Design principles

General principles of design

Consider individual patient factors.

Consider the length of time the splint is to be used.

Strive for simplicity and pleasing appearance.

Allow for optimum function of the extremity.

Allow for optimum sensation.

Allow for efficient construction and fit.

Provide for ease of application & removal.

Consider the splint/exercise regimen.

 Specific principles of design

Identify key joints.

Review the purpose: to immobilize, to increase passive motion, to substitute for active motion.

Determine if the wrist should be incorporated.

Consider kinetic effects.

Identify the areas of diminished sensibility.

Decide whether to use static or dynamic forces.

Determine the surface for splint application.

Use mechanical principles advantageously.

Adapt for anatomic variables.

Choose the most appropriate material.

Adapt to the general properties of the material.

 Construction principles

Starve for good cosmetic effect.

Use equipment appropriate for the material.

Use type of heat & temperature appropriate to the material.

Use safety precautions.

Round corners.

Smooth edges.

Analyze the mechanical principles.

Stabilize joined surfaces.

Finish rivets.

Provide ventilation as necessary.

Secure padding.

Secure straps.

 Fit principles

Mechanical considerations

Use principles of mechanics.

            Reduce pressure.

            Use optimum rotational force.

            Eliminate friction.

            Use optimum leverage.

Anatomic considerations

Accommodate bony prominences.

Incorporate dual obliquity concepts.

Consider ligamentous stress.

Maintain arches.

Align splint axis with anatomic axis.

Use skin crease as boundaries.

 Kinesiologic considerations

Allow for kinematic changes.

Employ kinetic concepts.

Technical considerations

Develop patient rapport.

Work efficiently.

Change method according to properties of materials used.