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by Nandgaonkar Therapy Services



Carpentry tools-In order to work successfully with different forms of wood, to accurate shapes & dimensions, the wood-worker must know the use of large number of tools. The principle types, which are manipulated by hand, are described below.

1.marking & measuring tools

2.cutting tools

3.planning tools

4.boring tools

5.striking tools

6.holding tools

7.miscellaneous tools-oilstone (types-natural /artificial /shaped stones called oilstone slips-used for sharpening gouges

Marking & measuring tools (Testing tools)

1.Metre scale

2.Two feet rule

3.marking knife

4.wing compasses

5.spirit level

6.try square

7.mitre square


9.marking gauge-This important tool mainly used for marking is mainly made of wood. It has a long bar stem & wood of square or rectangular cross section with one marking point at its end. The side faces are made curved with one face having graduations. A brass liner is carried on the sliding piece face that is towards the scribing pin fitted in the stem. This gauge provides an accurate cut line parallel to a true edge or scribe lines parallel to or at any desired distance from a finished edge or face. A gauge longer than the marking gauge is known as panel gauge. It is used for gauging lines across wider surface.

10.motise gauge-is an improved form of marking gauge. It has two marking points, one of which is fixed near to the end of the stem while the other is attached to a brass-sliding bar. These two marking points screw two parallel lines or mortise lines. The thumbscrew provided at the end of the stems helps to set the two pins at any desired distance part. In this 2 parallel lines can be scribed at a desired distance one another as well as at a desired distance from edge or surface in a single operation. Due to its particular use in marking mortises & tenons as well as other similar joints necessitating parallel lines, this gauge is known as mortise gauge.

11.cutting gauge-is similar to a marking gauge except that it is provided with a steel cutting knife for gauging fine deep lines for the joints like done tails on wide wood for cutting through very thin stuff to make small strips up to 3mm thickness & for cutting small rebates. In case of thicker sections, deep lines across the grains of wood are cut.

12.straight edge

Cutting tools

Saw-is a most important cutting tool used by wood-worker. The two main types of saws are Hand Saws & Power saws. Saw is generally specified by the length of its blade measured along its toothed edge, and the pitch of the teeth expressed in millimeters(mm).

To cut in a straight line

Rip saws-are used for cutting along the grains in thick wood. The blade is made of high-grade tool steel. It is fitted in a wooden handle made of hardwood by means of rivets or screws. Ripsaws are about 700 mm long with 3 to 5 teeth per 25 mm. The teeth are bent alternatively, one to right, the next to left. Bending the teeth in this manner is called setting in Saw. The set of a saw provides clearance to prevent the blade from bending during the sawing operation.

Crosscut saw/hand saw-to cut across the grains in thick wood. Used to cut large sheets of wood.e.g.boards & planks. It is not used for small or fine cutting. They are 600mm to 650mm long with 8 to 10 teeth per mm.

Panel saw-A panel saw is about 500mm long with 10 to 12 teeth per 25mm & is very much like the cross cut saw. It has finer blade & is used for finer work. This is often used ripping as well as cross cutting. The teeth have slightly more hooks than those of cross cut saw.

Tenon saw/back saw-has handle at one end & a ridge of backbone of metal (steel) along the top of the blade (back) & is used for making slits in wood. Even though the blade very thin is not bendable. Used for cutting thin pieces of woods, making joints & for some finer works. This saw is mostly used for cross cutting when a finer & more accurate finish is required. Tenon saw blades are from 250 to 400mm in length & generally have 13 teeth per 25mm.The teeth are shaped in the form of an equilateral triangle & are sometimes termed peg teeth.

Dovetail saw-A smaller version of the tenon saw. This saw is used where the greatest accuracy is required & fine shallow cuts are to be made. The number of teeth may vary from 12 to 18 teeth per 25mm while the length may vary from 200 to 350mm.

Hacksaw-used for cutting metal sheets & pipes.

Saber saw-is electrically operated hand held saw used for cutting wood.

Band saw-used to cut large blocks of wood. It is electrically operated heavy-duty log cutting saw

To cut in circular fashion, curves in thin wood

Bow or frame saw-consist of a narrow blade, 250mm to 350mm long, held in a wooden frame. The blade is held in tension by twisting the string with a small wooden lever. These saws are used for cutting quick curves & on the handle revolve in their sockets. The blade can be adjusted to any desired position when in use.

Compass saw-is used for sawing small curves in confined spaces & has a narrow tapering blade about 250 to 400mm long. Fixed to an open type wooden handle.

Pad or keyhole saw-is smallest saw used by a carpenter. The blade being about 250mm long is secured to the handle by two screws. The saw is used for cutting keyholes, or starting of interior curves.

Fret saw-hand fret saw, bicycle fret saw, and Fret saw machine

Coping saw-has very narrow blade & held rigid in spring metal frame. Screwing the handle tightens the balde. The saw is used for small radius curves. Types-adjustable/ Non-adjustable

Parts of the saw


Saw rivet



Therapeutic uses of saw increase ROM of elbow & shoulder joint. strengthen the muscles of upper limb. strengthen the handgrip while holding the handle. improve eye hand coordination while cutting out a diagram/design/in a straight line on wood. improve muscle power of trunk muscles, e.g.while sitting on the floor & sawing with long cross cut saw. improve endurance & skill develop sitting & standing tolerance. improve ROM & MP of lower limb.e.g.treadle/fret saw machine. improve eye & foot coordination.

10.output for aggression & constructive channelizatiion of excessive energy.

11.pre-vocational testing & training

12.vocational training e.g.plumber, carpentar 

Boring Tools

Brace and bits

Hand drill & bit

Bits-diamond point bit

            Morse bit

            Gimlet bit



Rasping tools

File is a tool used to smoothen the metal, wood, plastic, diamond

Flat file-this file is parallel for about 2/3rd of its length & then tapers in width and thickness. It is cut both faces (double cut) & both edges (single cut). 

Hand file-the width of this file is parallel through out, but its thickness tapers similarly to the flat file. Both faces are double cut and one edge is single cut. The uncut edge is called the safe edge & prevents cutting into one face of square corner whilst the other face is being filed. Both these files are used for general surfacing work, the hand file being used more particularly when filing up to a step, which must be straight and square.

Half round file-the rounded side is not a true half circle, but only a portion of a circle. This side of the file is useful for many purposes involving the formation of a radius. The flat side of this file is always double cut. The second-cut & smooth are only single cut on the curved side.

Round file-tapers similar to square file. Used for opening out holes, producing rounded corners, round-ended slots, etc. Round files are usually double cut on the rough & bastard qualities over 150mm long, whilst the rough & bastard under 150mm, together with the second cut & smooth, are single cut.

Three square- used for corners less than 90o, & in positions where awkward corners have to be taken out. Double cut on all faces.

Triangular file

Square file-is parallel for 2/3rd of its length & then tapers off. It is double cut on all sides & is used for filing corners & slots where the hand file could not be entered.

Parts of the file






Smooth files-

Single cut-for filing me

Double cut wood/grains of wood

Rough, course/rasp file-used in woodwork.

They have various shapes like triangular, flat (for making keys), circular, and semicircular.

Needle files-used in watch repairing, factories, jewellary work.

Therapeutic uses of files improve ROM of elbow joint while filing

2.improves and maintain MP of shoulder & elbow muscles.

3.Improves grasp/grip strength.

4.improves sitting & standing tolerance (adapted)

5.pre vocational testing & training

6.improves eye hand coordination.

Finishing tools


Glass paper

Gripping tools/holding tools- to enable the woodworker to cut wood accurately, it must be held steady. There are number of tools & devices to hold wood/object, having its own purpose according to the kind of cutting to be done.

Sash cramp-is also called bar cramp. It is made up of a steel gar of rectangular section with malleable iron fitting & steel screw. This is used for holding wide work such as frames or tops.

G-cramp-is used for smaller work. It consist of a malleable iron frame that can be swiveled & steel screw to which is fitted a thumbscrew. It is made in large range of sizes from 2 to 16

Hold fast

Bench vise-is most commonly used. Its one jaw is fixed to the side of the table while the other is kept movable by means of a screw & a handle. The whole vise is made of iron & steel. The jaws are lined with hardwood face.

Prosthetic vice-The limbs are round & conical in shape & therefore special arrangements have to be made to hold such objects. This vise is made from hard wood. The two arms are rectangular in section. In this vise also, one jaw is fixed & other jaw is movable. The screw & the handle may be of metal/wood.

Striking tools & driving tools

Hammer- is a tool used to impart force on an object. The size of a hammer indicated by the weight from ¼ kg to 2kg.

There are two types of hammers.

1)      Hard &

2)      Soft.

Hard hammers are further divided into four types.

I. Ball peen

II.Cross peen

III.straight peen


Ball peen hammer-It is generally used for general purpose laying out riveting, chipping & forming. Its peen is ball shaped. Ball part is used for riveting & larger part is used for nailing/smooth finishing of rivets

Cross peen Hammer-It is generally used in smithy shop for heavy work & spreading the hot metal. It has every thing similar to the ball peen hammer except that the peen in this case is like a wedge & is perpendicular to the shaft or handle.

Straight peen hammer-It is also in smithy shop for swaging & riveting. Its peen is parallel to the handle.

Claw hammer-the head part of hammer is used for nailing/hammering purposes while claw part is used to remove nails.

Sledgehammer-is used for heavier work & on flat surfaces in smithy shop. Used for breaking large concrete slabs, rocks. Its size varies from 2 to 10kg.

Warrington hammer

Soft hammers are classified

I. Raw hide




V.Hard rubber

Wooden Mallet-used for hammering wooden chisel in woodcarving. The mallet is woodenheaded hammer of round/rectangular cross-section. The striking face is made flat to the work. A mallet is used to give light blows to the cutting tools having wooden handle.

Nylon and rubber hammer-is used for molding soft metals.

Reflex hammer-used for checking reflexes of the patient.

Therapeutic uses of Hammer.

1.improves & maintain ROM at elbow joint

2.improves & maintains muscle power of elbow flexors & extensors.

3.improves grip strength while holding the hammer

4.cylindrical grasp improvement improve eye hand coordination

6.can be adapted to improve sitting & standing tolerance.

Driving tools


Nail puller

Nail punch



Paring tools

Chisel- it is a tool used to carve out an object in wood, metal, stone etc. Chisels are specified by length and width of blade

Types of chisels in carpentry

Firmer chisel-is the most useful general-purpose chisel & may be used by pressure or with a mallet. It has a flat blade about 125mm long. The width of the blade varies from 15 to 20mm.

Dovetail chisel-

Mortise chisel- has a thick narrow blade made of rectangular section. The blade is kept thick so that it may not break or spring under a heavy strain & also ensure that it withstands the mallet blows. Its handle is also reinforced. To make a good joint the edges cut by this chisel must be perfectly square & smooth. Blades vary in width from 3 to 16mm.

Long or paring chisel-is operated by a single thrust of the hand. No mallet is used. This is for shaping & preparing the surfaces of wood. The length ranges from 225 to 500mm & width from 5 to 50mm.

Beveled edge firmer chisel-is used for more delicate & fine work. It is useful for getting into corners where ordinary chisels would be clumsy.

Skew chisel

Socket chisel

Gouges-are chisels with curved cross-sections, and may be either inside or outside. Inside gouges are used for grooving, hollowing & edge shaping. The edge of the chisel is ground & sharpened on a special stone. Outside gouge is used for wood turning & cutting flutes. It is ground on an ordinary grindstone & then sharpened on a flat oilstone.

            Gouges are made to a large number of different curves for different work & their size ranges from 6mm to 40mm wide.

Parts of chisel







Bevel face

Sharp edge/cutting edge

Wood carving chisel/flat chisel-is used in carving out object in wood as in woodcarving. Here a wooden mallet is used for hammering wooden chisel (never metallic hammer) chisels are of different widths.1/2, 1/4, 3/4, 1, 1/8.

Wood turning chisel/semicircular tip chisel/triangular tip chisel-is used for carving out wood in woodturning.

Cold chisel-used for cutting soft metals like aluminium, gold, lead. Here metal hammer is used like ball & peen hammer.

The common shapes are

I. Flat

II.cross cut

III.the diamond

IV.half round

V.side chisel

Therapeutic uses of chisel improve grip/grasp strength while holding

2.improves eye hand coordination

3.can be adapted to improve sitting & standing tolerance

4.pre vocational testing & training

5.improves muscle power of upper extremity while using mallet/hammer (grip, elbow, wrist & shoulder)

Planning tools

The blade of a plane is fitted in a wooden block at a particular angle. The blade of a plane is very similar to a chisel. The planes used for general purpose are jackplane, trying plane & smoothing plane.

Hollow plane

Round plane

Grooving plane

Bull nose plane

Block plane

Compass plane

Jack plane-is a general purpose-planning tool. It has wooden body or stock, a wooden handle for holding the plane during operation & blade or iron cutter fitted to stock inclined at 450 with the bottom face called sole. A thorough slot with its back surface tapered at 450 with the sole provided in the stock. The blade automatically gets the required inclination after fitting & resting against this slot. In order to allow only a desired length of cutter to project below the sole as well as to hold the iron cutter at the desired position, a tapered wedge is inserted in the slot.

            For roughening, the projection is from 0.8mm to 1.6mm while for finishing it should be below 0.8mm. In order to provide reinforcement to the cutter against the cutting forces as well as prevents its edge from bending, another iron piece known as cap iron is fitted to it. Both are secured together with the help of a setscrew passing through a longitudinal slot made in the body of the iron cutter & engaging a nut formed in the cap iron. Jackplane has length varying from 30 to 46cm & stock cross-section 6 to 7cm.square.

            Another type of jackplane known as iron jackplane though used for the same purpose provides better finish in comparison. Except a wooden handle at the back & knob at the front, whole of its body is made of cast iron. This plane though costly has more rigid body & long life than the wooden jackplane. Iron jackplane available in different sizes includes different parts like iron cutter, the cap iron for reinforcement, the lever cap, the long & the adjusting screw.

Smoothing planes-are used for giving better finish to a surface planed by jackplane. It is 200 to 250mm long having a blade of 70mm wide.

Trying plane-is a finishing plane & is set with a very fine cut. It is used for producing as true a surface or edge as possible & is set to cut a shaving as thin as a smoothing plane. The length of plane varies from 550 to 650mm and section of the body is 85mm & 60mm wide.

Toothing plane

Rebate plane/rabbit-is used to form a step on edge of the board, so that this board may fit into another board, similarly cut. The blade is open at both sides of the plane & must be perfectly straight at the cutting edge. Width range from 12 to 50mm.

Spoke share plane-is used for smoothing the curved surfaces.

Pliers-pliers are a tool used for tightening small nuts & bolts and for shaping small metal wires.


Combination of cutter & pliers-used for cutting soft wires &twisting/shaping of wires. Pliers can also be used for fixing/removing small nuts & bolts.

Flat nose pliers-used for assembling work of small electrical items.e.g.switch, regulator, assembly & nut & bolt fitting.

Slip joint pliers-used in fixing nut & bolts e.g. cycle industry

Round nose pliers-is used for shaping the wire. It is not used in removing nuts & bolts.

Therapeutic uses of pliers improve grip strength & grasp while using pliers

2.strengthen intrinsic & long flexor muscles of hand

3.improves pronation & supination of forearm.

4.can be used in an activity to improve sitting & standing tolerance.

The bench & vise-the work of a fitter/carpenter will probably take him to various places, but the bench is his headquarter. This should be a rigid structure provided with racks/shelves at the back for storage of articles & tools, so that the bench top may be kept tidy & clear. Lock up drawers should be available for the reception of each workers private tools. A rigid bench is essential, as nothing is more aggravating and conducive to inaccurate work than bench, which wobbles about as one applies force to a job supported on it. For holding work whilst operating on it, the worker has vise/vice attached to the bench. This consists of an iron/steel cast body into which fitted a square section slide formed to jaw at its outer end. The corresponding fixed jaw is incorporated on the body of the vise, & the two jaws are faced with hardened steel jaw-pieces, screwed to the jaws & cut with teeth to help grip the work. The sliding jaw is operated by screw & nut. The height of the bench should be such that the top of the vise jaws is at about the same height as the fitters elbow when he/she stands normally at the bench with his upper arm hanging vertically, forearm bent horizontally. To avoid damage to the surface of finished work by the hardened jaw pieces, it is usual to employ clamps made of brass, lead/soft steel.

Bench vise-is used in tool room, so that the work can be located at any desired position. The main body of the vice is made of cast iron & consists of two jaws, one fixed and other movable. The movable jaw slides inside the fixed one through a screw and box nut arrangement. The vice has two hardened steel jaws with serrated (teeth cut on faces) faces. These jaws are fixed with screws. The teeth grip holds the work firmly. Sometimes a finished job is to be held in vice jaws, for that vice jaw coverings made of soft metal such as copper, brass or aluminum used.

Types of vise-  

I. Pipe vice-is used for holding pipes & round bars. It is generally used in plumbing work. It grips the round stock at four points.

II.leg vice-is used by blacksmiths. vise-is used by watchmakers or instrument repairers, wires, etc.

IV.hand vise-is used by toolmakers for holding small things like wires & pieces of sheet metal for filling and drilling purposes. It is very handy for making keys of locks.

Maintenance of tools

1.apply oil or grease to metal tools

2.keep the tools in wooden box.

3.use the tools regularly.

4.sharpen the blunt edges.

5.put white ant powder & also polish them.

6.electroplate your tools.

7.keep it away from moisture.

Needles-they has various numbers. Thicker the needle higher the number.

Types-1.hand operated needle2.machine operated needle

Machine operated needle is fitted in sewing machine.

Knitting needle-used for knitting wool & shawl.

Crochet needle-used for making crochet items, wall hanging, crochet mats & bed mats.

Tapestry needle-thicker needle as compared to machine needle. Largest of hand operated needle. Used for paper beads, stitching of macramé & twines.


Wool-used for knitting sweaters, shawls.

Crochet-used in crochet.

Macramé-used in cord knotting. Thicker than ordinary twine & various chords.

Embroidery- Embroidery stitching & design.

Cotton & nylon-stitching in machine & hand operated device.

Therapeutic uses-

1.improves eye hand coordination.

2.improves pinch grip

3.can be adapted for improving sitting tolerance

4.recreational & divergent therapy.


Poster paints-used to paint design on paper. Normally it is water based.

Oil paints-used in design paintings & lettering. Can be used on cardboard/paper. It is oil based.

Fabric colors-used in design painting on clothes. These colors tend to wear after a period of time. There is two-types1.water soluble2.non-water soluble.

Printing Ink-used in printing-by-printing machine. Fast color-do not comes out easily.

Dye color-used in tie & dyes the cloth. Dye color consist of 1.color2.fixator

Color-one liter of color & two spoons of caustic soda & one spoon of NaCl

Fixator-Amilgen (heat)

PAPERS-is normally sold in reams.

480sheets=1 ream

20 quire=1 ream

1 quire=24 sheets

This is a material of multiuse.

Types-crape paper-used in decoration.

Marble paper-used in craft like paper beads, school crafts, and exhibition

Ruled paper-used for writing purposese.g.notebooks, fullscape sheets

Carbon paper-used for making carbon copies of manuscripts.e.g.typing, tracing out design

Drawing paper-used for drawing, painting, coloring designs/objects.

Tissue paper

Filter paper-used in chemical laboratories

Sand paper-used to smoothen wood.

Emery paper-used to smoothen metal

Card paper-used to display boards, crafts


Blotting paper


Butter paper



a)      Hard wood/cabinet wood


ii.difficult to cut/saw, plane it & work generally

iii.more durable, looks better & take finer permanent polish/finish (maple).They are often described as cabinet,Walnut,ash.elm,sycamore,maple etc.

b)      Soft wood

i.extensively employed in wood industry(pine & deal) for building & carpentry,deal,lime,sagar etc.

Depending upon thickness

I.veneer-sunmica type=

They are normally thin woods, used as sunmica.

They range in thickness from about a post card to approximately 1/8th of an inch.

Next order of thickness comes in fretwork ranging from 1/8th of an inch to 1/4th of an inch.

Some thicker forms of woods are necessary for some form of work. Therefore there are varieties of ordinary flat boards/planks, hard/soft.

Wood is sold in Rs./length or by area ie. Rs./square foot

2.plywood = three or more thin sheets of wood cemented together. The grain of the two facing sheet run at right angle to that of third/central sheet.

Thickness ranges from 3mm/approx.1/8th of an inch & upwards.

Sizes of plywood-they range from small random pieces to large sheet. (6/7feet long & 2/3feet wide)

Economical size-3feet by 3feet 6 inches, 4feetby 5 feet

Plywood is sold as per square foot or per 100 square feet.


BICYCLE FRET SAW-used to cut design on wood, plywood & plastic, acrylic etc. The power to operate this equipment is provided by the muscles of lower extremity.

Therapeutic uses: 1.It improves ROM of the lower limb, mainly at hip & knee.2.It improves MP of knee & hip muscles by tightening the resistance belt.3.It improves eye hand coordination while cutting out design.4.Improves sitting tolerance /stamina /endurance.5.Pre-vocational testing & training, e.g. cyclist.

FOOT OPERATED SEWING MACHINE-It is equipment used to stitch material like clothe, leather, Rexene, thin plastic material. The power to operate the machine is provided by muscles of the lower extremity.

Therapeutic uses: 1.Maintain & improve ROM at ankle joint.2.Improve MP of the ankle joint.3.Improves eye hand coordination.4.Improve sitting tolerance.5.Prevocational testing & training, e.g. tailor.

LATHE MACHINE-the lathe is the father of all machine tools. It is an equipment to make cylindrical of machine, lamp stand, legs of bed/chairs.

Types-1.metal lathe machine

2.wood lathe machine

Power to operate the machine can be manual or electrical. Manual can be upper/lower extremity operated.

Woodturning lathe-is a single purpose machine & is therefore, indispensable where there is any amount of turning is to be done. The most useful type & size of lathe to meet general purpose turning between centers with outside & inside..

Therapeutic uses

1.if it is lower extremity operated, it is used to improve MP of lower limb. improve eye hand coordination. improve standing tolerance. improve grip strength while grasping wood/chisel improve endurance

6.pre vocational testing & training eg.carpenters, leg operated machine operator.

PRINTING PRESS- (old model, semi automatic)-It is equipment used for printing matter on paper & is usually electrically operated.

Therapeutic uses: 1.Improve ROM of shoulder (flexion, extension, IR & ER)-In putting & removing the paper to be printed & to improve ROM at elbow.2.To improve MP of UE specially of triceps, shoulder adductors, shoulder flexors in applying brakes.3.To improve grip in applying brake & palmar grasp when putting & removing papers for printing.4.To improve standing tolerance.5.To improve eye hand coordination.5.Pre vocational testing & training specially for the persons working in press.